Architectural reflection of 30 Nazi and America governments
In the historical process of many civilizations; architecture has had a secret but so important place because architecture and architectural works have a massive language to explains the cultures, political structures, technological levels and characters of the period in the most objective way. Therefore, architectural characters; it may also change in different cultures, different state structures and the subjective viewpoint of the society and / or architects during the same period as it changed from the period. The architectural structures brought by these factors are; it will affect both the psychological and sociological aspects of the society. In short; As British statesman Winston Churchill said: “We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us.”
By going out of these thoughts; this paper examines that what 1930s-1940s’ Turkey and Nazi Germany regimes have architectural differences, based on their styles, dwellings which they built and effects of these dwellings to people.
Definitions of Two Governmental System in 1930s-40s
Nazism, also spelled Nazism, in full National Socialism, German Nationalsozialismus, totalitarian movement led by Adolf Hitler as head of the Nazi Party in Germany. In its intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, Nazism shared many elements with Italian fascism. However, Nazism was far more extreme both in its ideas and in its practice. In almost every respect it was an anti-intellectual and atheoretical movement, emphasizing the will of the charismatic dictator as the sole source of inspiration of a people and a nation, as well as a vision of annihilation of all enemies of the Aryan Volk as the one and only goal of Nazi policy. (Changed article title from “National Socialism” to “Nazism.”, Adam Augustyn, 2018)
Turkey is a republic based on secular, democratic, and pluralistic principles. The Turkish Republic was established in 1923 by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, and has a parliamentary system of government that constitutionally protects personal rights and freedoms. The highest judicial authority in Turkey is the Constitutional Court. The executive branch is accountable to the Constitutional Court, which may also be called upon to review vetoed legislation. The legislative branch consists of the National Assembly. This body of 550 deputies, nationally elected by popular vote to serve a five-year term, develops legislation and elects the President, who serves for a seven-year term and has limited veto power. The executive branch consists of the President, the Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. Consulting the popular vote, the President names the new Prime Minister, who leads the Council of Ministers. If the election is very close, a coalition government will be formed with Deputy Prime Ministers from the other strongly supported parties. Following the new Prime Minister’s recommendation, the President also appoints the members of the Council of Ministers, who head the various governmental departments (such as the Ministry of Education).
Detections and Projections
In the second quarter of the 20th century, the world has witnessed a lot of political and economic improvements. In accordance with the result of the WW1 and the economic crisis happened in 1929, the political regimes of countries have changed. The establishment of Turkish Republic following to the downfall of the Ottoman Empire and the giving place of the German Empire to the National Socialist Regime can be given as two examples to this.
Main goal of the national-socialists being the superior race and superior state made the ancient Greece and Rome as role models. Because of that, the architectural style that was adopted in this period can be named as neoclassical architecture. In the structures; simplicity, symmetry, elegance are at the forefront. His ability to address and propaganda that he has done where the main reasons of the rise of Hitler. Because of that day integrated the propaganda element abundantly into the architectural style. (“Architecture in Berlin 1933-1945”, M.Donath, pg.11) Albert Speer and Ernst Neufert can be given as examples. Assigned by the Hitler in order to use this style in the state. Those people have built various kinds of structures in this style, one of them being the housing.
The main features that aimed in the dwelling constructions are; simplicity, functionality and uniformity. About this, Albert Speer said that I had only the aim to impose the grandeur of the building upon the people who are in it. If people who may have different minds are pressed together in such surrounded, they all get unified to one mind. That is really all. (Robert Hughes, 1978) Therefore, it’s not likely to see subjectivity and different construction types in dwelling constructing field. The constructions that were built in rural areas had triangular roofs with 1 or 2 storeys, lining up along with the roads. It was preferred to have terrace roof, windows following one another, and a flat facade.
(One of the mass housing opening, Germany, 1930’s)
It can be an example for buildings that is Krampnitz. Krampnitz Kaserne was a military complex, in Fahrland, Potsdam, created by the Germans during the rearmament period. It was used by the Germans until the end of the Second World War. After the war it was used by Soviet troops until its abandonment in 1992. By going out to photo, it can be says that this building has neoclassical features because there are facades which have symmetry like windows’ position and also there are two pilasters (an architectural element in classical architecture used to give the appearance of a supporting column and to articulate an extent of wall, with only an ornamental function.) on the entrance facade.Like Albert Speer says, these dwellings and other type of constructions which were built, affect to people about having the same ideals because in Nazi Germany, after the buildings existed, it could seen that everywhere have same type of architectural style and these affect people same. also this situation affects that people supports the Nazist government and leader because structures maked them powerful and unconquerable.
(From the Nuremberg Rally, 1933)
Anatolia for the past to the present has hosted many civilizations have a position very different cultural and architectural features. The first epoch of civilization, Seljuk and Ottoman architecture and culture hosted in a wide range of architectural style that is possible to find traces. WW1 suffered during the occupation of the lands of Anatolia, from the development to the state since the first years of the Republic “to the level of contemporary civilizations” ulaşıltırıl the effort shown. Despite the 1929 economic crisis the world has experienced goer could develop the country thanks to the policy of state. Although more requirements, the number of architects in the country was very low. Industrial Encouragement Law enacted in 1927, was providing the right to bring workers and experts abroad. This is especially felt pressured european architects had prepared the ground for an influx of Turkey (20.Yüzyıl Türkiye Mimarlığı, Doğan Hasol, pg.58). The names of these architects are Ernst Reuter, Clemens Holzmeister and Ernst Egli. Important Turkish architects such as Mimar Kemalettin, Emin Onat, Vedat Bey and other architects coming from abroad differ in their style, but they share a common language with their general lines. Since the 1930s, modernism, which began to emerge in the perception of the world, have found place in Turkey and architects have entered the quest of finding the new from the old extraversion. In this context, important architects of modernism in Turkey, Sedad Hakkı Eldem’s Fethi Okyar House and Şevki Balmumcu’s Ankara Exibition House can tell us how a terms of style located in 1930, Turkey.
In Fethi Okyar House; The front part of the hall with a rectangular plan has been turned into a semicircle, which creates an architectural design bearing traces of both Cubism and the flow of the PURISM. On the top floor of a two-story house there is a large fringed patio surrounding the house. There is a row of rhythmic straight stitches that hold the patio and eaves, which allows us to understand that the functionalism is inspired by the classical architecture independently of the flow (20.Yüzyıl Türkiye Mimarlığı, Doğan Hasol, pg.106).
(Fethi Okyar House, 1937)
The Balmumcu’s Ankara Exhibition House is a competition project internationally has been of a different value by the public and dignitaries due to be made by a Turkish architect’s design of this building although most made by foreign architects of public buildings. Art Deco structure with the general characteristics of Streamline Moderne style has a suitable design. Mutually perpendicular two masses, the mass of semi-circular ends, and windows are horizontal rows (20.Yüzyıl Türkiye Mimarlığı, Doğan Hasol, pg.96).
(Ankara Exibition House, 1934)
Including structures in the beginning example, in that period, other buildings have been built, it has offered they carry traces of the style that is being used worldwide in the period where, and they also also together with the cultural and functional improvements both to the world and they managed to create his own style very valuable information to the Turkish people and ideas . In this case, the country has been in contact with other countries and also the message that act on the same level with them on many issues data to the public. Thus, the current design trends and has provided the people of other countries or the difficulty in adopting important architectural perceptions and to increase the intellectual in this direction. In short, the perception of Turkish architecture in 1930, between the earth and the Turkish community sees bridging conceptual sense.
As a result, until then the largest political and economic effects after a war that WW1 causing established two state ideology they espouse –after 1923 established goal has always been within reach of modern civilization Republic of Turkey and After the great economic crisis of 1929 people in a democratic way chosen by the dictator of Nazi Germany- political and perspectives in art and architecture as return of economic attitudes have varied.
On the one hand, there is a neo-classical movement that was born by the architectural style of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations inspired by the totalitarian regime of Nazi Germany and regarded itself as continuation; on the other hand, Turkish Modernism, which works to develop itself in all respects, provides workers and specialists who come from abroad in this direction and spreads new and contemporary art in the country …
This architectural styles reflected also made artifacts, it is seen traces of the classical period in Nazi Germany, the modernism of architects from abroad the Republic of Turkey with the architectural style of their own country, and blends of the Turkish cultural architectural style is seen that form of Turkish modernism on. Architecture, as Jacques Derrida also stated, “Architecture is a communication object product carries communication function. Architecture is a form of expression.” (20.Yüzyıl Türkiye Mimarlığı, Doğan Hasol, pg.12). Communication between the society and also provide design. Thus, constructions; in the Nazi society, evoking feelings of power, ego and invincibility; In the Turkish people, modern passion for life has been aimed at transcending modernization to people, and both have succeeded in giving the intended effect.
(Two Leaders which support to develop their own states with their ideologies:
- Kemal Ataturk, 1936 and Adolf Hitler, 1931)
Fahrettin Fatih Mete